Classes of Pesticides

ORGANOPHOSPHATES (also organic phosphates) - Organic compounds containing phosphorus. Examples:  Chlorpyriphos, Dylox, Malathion + Orthene.

CARBAMATES - Compounds which are salts or esters of carbonic acid. Found in insecticides, Prelude TR aerosol, fungicides, (Benlate, Banrot [in part],  OHP 66672, Protect D/F), T-Metho.

SYNTHETIC PYRETHROIDS - Synthetic compounds formulated to duplicate or enhance the biological activity of the active principles of the Pyrethrum plant. These compounds have a long-term residual on plant surfaces. If a grower wishes to use insect predators, the use of synthetic pyrethroids should be discontinued 3 to 6 months before introducing predators to a greenhouse. (Examples: Decathlon, Mavrik, Perm-x 1E, Tame, Tempo), Menace.

PYRIDAZINONE - A class of chemistry that has shown efficacy against a broad range of mites as well as whiteflies. The unique mode of action is a mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor  which blocks respiration within the insects’ cells (example: Sanmite).

BOTANICALS - Compounds derived primarily from vascular plants whose name may be applied to the insecticidal compound extracted from them. Examples: Neem (i.e., Azatin XL), PT 1000 Pyrethrum, Pyronyl Crop Spray (derived from Pyrethrum).

MICROBIALS - Compounds derived from microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. Bacterial compounds include Dipel/Thuricide & Gnatrol, which contain some strain of Bacillus thuringiensis. A bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, is the active ingredient of the fungicide called Cease.  Others include Agrimycin, Botanigard, & Rootshield.

HORTICULTURAL OILS - Also refined petroleum distillates. Examples: Ultra-Pure & Suffoil-X.

ELEMENTALS - Sulfur, copper (in K-TEA algaecide).

COPPERS - Basic copper sulfate, Champ Prill, Phyton-27.

INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS (IGRs) - Compounds that mimic insect growth hormones that keep an insect from maturing to an adult form, or inhibit the formation of a substance critical to the growth of the insect, such as chitin that forms the exoskeleton. Examples: Enstar AQ, Preclude TR.

SOAPS - Derived from fatty acids of potassium salts. Mode of action is disruption of cell membranes in insects and plants. Examples: M-Pede, Moss and Algae Killer, Safer Soaps, Scythe herbicide.

SPINOSYNS - A class of chemicals derived from the fermentation of a newly described species of bacterium. The fermentation process produces metabolites that control insects. Example: Conserve SC & Captaia Jack’s Dead Bug Brew.

NEONICOTINOIDS - Works on central nervous system causing over stimulation and blockage of the postsynaptic nicotine acetylcholine receptors. Examples: Discus, Flagship, Marathon, Merit.PYRROLE - Interferes with energy production in cell mitochondria. Target pest cannot generate its own energy. Example: Pylon.

BENZIMIDAZOLE - Interferes with synthesis of DNA, affecting spore germination & growth. Examples: OHP 6672, Banrot, Zyban.

DICARBOXIMIDE - Thought to act by inhibition of synthesis of proteins & enzymes containing sulfhydryl chemicals. Examples: Chipco 26019, Iprodione SPC.

STROBILURINS - Based on natural products found in wood decaying fungi.  Keeps harmful fungi from competing for the nutrients they need to survive. Blocks spore production & germination. Examples: Heritage, Compass O, Abound.